Ma l’articolo era datato 21 gennaio 2003. Effect of modulation of serotonergic, cholinergic, and nitrergic pathways on murine fundic size and compliance measured by ultrasonomicrometry. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Sacral nerve stimulation increases gastric accommodation in rats: a spinal afferent and vagal efferent pathway. Two weeks after TV, intraluminal pressure increase in response to gastric distension (6 ml) remained high in vivo (Fig. A reevaluation of the effects of stimulation of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus on gastric motility in the rat. 1B). Prima ti lodano poi parlano male alle spalle: queste sono persone false. This was not affected by TTX, indicating a loss of the accommodation reflex in vivo. This increase was significantly lower than that observed in stomach obtained from sham‐operated rats (F at 40.9, d.f. Visualizza il profilo di Michele Lecchini su LinkedIn, la più grande comunità professionale al mondo. A cura di Nico Raffi e Simone Galli. terza persona plurale del congiuntivo presente di leccare terza persona plurale dell'imperativo presente di leccare terza persona plurale del congiuntivo presente di leccare terza persona plurale dell'imperativo presente di leccare Tutte le puntate in versione integrale del Fiorello show si possono vedere con questo player (cliccare la freccetta nell'angolo in basso a destra per vedere la directory dei filmati) o dal link alla fine del post. Learn more. 1979). Purtroppo per non si pu generalizzare il discorso, perch una cosa sicura: il vending non per niente semplice, soprattutto quando si approcciano clienti con pi di 10.000 battute/mese. We investigated the vagal pathways mediating the gastric accommodation reflex in the rat stomach. This was significantly higher than control (F, 239.9; d.f, 1,48, P < 0.0001; ANOVA, where F, the variance ratio and d.f. Inhibition of gastric motility by hyperglycemia is mediated by nodose ganglia K It is not known which neurotransmitters in the gastric myenteric plexus mediate the accommodation reflex. This suggests that the vagal sensory pathway mediating the accommodation reflex does not involve capsaic insensitive afferent fibres in intact rats. L-Arginine L-Glutamate Enhances Gastric Motor Function in Rats and Dogs and Improves Delayed Gastric Emptying in Dogs. Immunocytochemical Detection of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS)-IR in Embryonic Rat Stomach Between Days 13 and 21 of Gestation. It has been suggested that along with NO and VIP, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may be a NANC neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract (Crist et al. The pressure increase evoked by gastric distension (6 ml) was significantly enhanced by l‐NAME, hexamethonium and TTX. Ma la falsità si annida anche nella parola, nella bugia, oppure nelle opere, nei plagi. In contrast, administration of rabbit VIP antiserum (1:25 dilution, 40 μl (kg body wt)−1) had no effect on the pressure increase evoked by gastric distension (6 ml; Table 1). IV. Brainstem pathways responsible for oesophageal control of gastric motility and tone in the rat. 1991; D'Amato, Curro & Montuschi, 1992; Shimamura, Fujisawa, Toda & Sunano, 1993; Takahashi & Owyang, 1995). Raccogli, seleziona e commenta i tuoi file. Although vagal stimulation has been shown to produce gastric relaxation, normal accommodation reflex has been demonstrated in patients with chronic vagotomies (Hertley & Mackie, 1991). Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy—Volume and Pressure Assessment. The perfusate was maintained at pH 7.4 and 37 °C, bubbled with a mixture of 95% O2‐5%CO2. Pretreatment with hexamethonium significantly enhanced the pressure increase evoked by gastric distension compared with control, reaching 14.5 ± 1.8 cmH2O when the stomach was distended with 6ml of saline (F at 56.6, d.f.at 1,48, and P < 0.0001, ANOVA) (Fig. Similar observations were made in conscious rats (Li & Owyang, 1996). Bibliografia. Mart. Increase in intragastric pressure evoked by gastric distension in the denervated, vascularly isolated, perfused stomach obtained from rats 4 weeks after vagotomy. 3-mag-2017 - Citazioni su adulatori, citazioni sui leccapiedi, citazioni sui lecchini, citazioni sui lustrascarpe. «Far pensare le persone ridendo è il modo che preferisco, perché efficace, accattivante e resistente nel tempo. No special post‐operative care was necessary. Functional vagal input to gastric myenteric plexus as assessed by vagal stimulation-induced Fos expression. In perivagal capsaicin‐treated rats the pressure increase evoked by gastric distension (6ml) was 9.1 ± 1.2 cmH2O. L'unico e originale sito web divertente! To investigate the involvement of an intramural pathway in mediating the accommodation reflex in the rat stomach, we performed in vitro experiments using a vascularly isolated, perfused rat stomach. To characterize the vagal efferent pathway mediating the gastric pressure response to distension, we investigated the role of NO and VIP neuropathways. CLICCA QUI per … As previously demonstrated, vagal efferent pathway utilizes nicotinic receptors to stimulate NO release from the gastric myenteric plexus (Takahashi & Owyang, 1995). 1980; Takasugi et al. Catecholaminergic neurons in rat dorsal motor nucleus of vagus project selectively to gastric corpus. Recensioni dei dipendenti BIRKO su Stipendi e benefit. The subdiaphragmatic vagal trunks were carefully exposed halfway between the diaphragm and the gastric cardia. Slurp: Lecchini, cortigiani e penne alla bava al servizio dei potenti che ci hanno rovinati Marco Travaglio ecco la copertina e la descrizione del libro libri.tel è un motore di ricerca gratuito di ebook (epub, mobi, pdf) Libri.cx è un blog per lettori, appassionati di libri. The authors are greatly indebted to Marcus Campbell, Lamberto Galang, and Krista Swaninger for their technical assistance. However, the specific nature of the neurotransmitters released from the NANC neurons of the gastric myenteric plexus during the accommodation reflex remains to be characterized. The oesophagus, duodenum, spleen and pancreas were dissected after the vessels were ligated. Hai cercato le parole Nancy, Lecchini nella voce attore.Vuoi cercare esattamente Nancy Lecchini come attore, regista, attore/regista oppure titolo del film? Data were expressed as means ±s.e.m. 2 Acupuncture for functional gastrointestinal disorders. La sanificazione ambientale è un’operazione mirata ad eliminare a fondo qualsiasi batterio ed agente contaminante che, con le comuni pulizie e detersioni, non è possibile rimuovere. Additional capsaicin was applied perivagally every 5 min. The IBM strategic repository for digital assets such as images and videos is located at dam.ibm.com. Ascanio Lecchini is on Facebook. Video divertentissimi, video divertenti e i link divertenti gratis! This involves a vagal efferent pathway that uses nitric oxide as a final neurotransmitter mediating gastric relaxation in intact rats. 4 weeks post vagotomy) in vivo (Table 2). Selection of electrical algorithms to treat obesity with intermittent vagal block using an implantable medical device. Administration of rabbit VIP antiserum also had no effect on the pressure increase evoked by gastric distension in these rats in vivo. To investigate this possibility, we performed gastric distension studies over time following vagotomy. Functional Histoanatomy of the Enteric Nervous System. To investigate the involvement of the adrenergic pathway in mediating the gastric pressure response to distension, we examined the effects of phentolamine, propranolol and guanethidine. Therefore, the role of the vagal nerve in mediating gastric relaxation remains controversial. This suggests that an intramural pathway within the gastric wall mediates gastric relaxation in stomach following chronic vagotomy. Il design di Getty Images è un marchio di Getty Images. was inserted into the stomach through the pylorus to infuse saline for gastric distension and the pylorus was tightly ligated with 3/0 silk. Similar to our results, they showed that intramural neural pathways are not involved in mediating LES relaxation (Price et al. 21-nov-2015 - Citazioni su adulatori, citazioni sui leccapiedi, citazioni sui lecchini, citazioni sui lustrascarpe. The specific doses of l‐NAME and VIP antiserum have been shown to abolish the rapid relaxation and prolonged relaxation, respectively, in response to vagal stimulation in vivo (Takahashi & Owyang, 1995). The frequency‐dependent release of neurotransmitters in response to nerve stimulation has been demonstrated previously. Vagal stimulation produces a frequency‐dependent increase of VIP release into the portal vein (Yasui et al. Pretreatment with the NO biosynthesis inhibitor, l‐NAME (10 mg (kg body wt)−1) significantly enhanced the pressure increase evoked by gastric distension compared with control, reaching 13.8 ± 1.9 cmH2O when the stomach was distended with 6ml of saline (Fat 40.2; d.f.at 1,48; and P < 0.0001; ANOVA) (Fig. E ne parleremo, ci sarà ancora tanto di inchiostro a scorrere sull’uomo, il simbolo dietro, le gesta, le contraddizioni, i paragoni con gli altri. In this study, the pressure increase evoked by gastric distension was significantly enhanced by truncal vagotomy (TV) of the rat stomach, confirming previous reports that the vagal nerve plays an important role in the mediation of the accommodation reflex in ferrets and dogs (Wilbur & Kelly, 1973; Andrews et al. The pressure increase evoked by gastric distension (6 ml) was significantly enhanced by l‐NAME (10−4 m), hexamethonium (10−4 m) and TTX (10−7 m) in rats with chronic vagotomies (4 weeks) in vitro (Table 3). Rats were anaesthetized by an intramuscular injection of xylazine and ketamine (13 and 87 mg (kg body wt)−1, respectively. {{collectionsDisplayName(searchView.appliedFilters)}}, {{searchText.groupByEventToggleImages()}}, {{searchText.groupByEventToggleEvents()}}, Risultati corrispondenti a meno parole chiave. Gastric distension (6 ml) evoked a much larger intragastric pressure in the denervated, vascularly isolated, perfused rat stomach in vitro. Impact of Botulinum Neurotoxin Pyloric Injection During Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Postoperative Gastric Leak: a Clinical Randomized Study. However, 4 weeks after vagotomy, the accommodation reflex was fully restored in vivo. The coeliac artery was identified and the abdominal aorta was ligated just above the branching of the coeliac artery; a cannula was inserted into the coeliac artery. 1982). This observation is consistent with the previous report that vagal discharge following gastric distension was not affected by perivagal capsaicin treatment (Raybould & Davison, 1989). Gastric distension (6 ml) evoked an increase in intragastric pressure to 17.0 ± 1.7 cmH2O following pretreatment with TTX. Effects of brain stem cholecystokinin-8s on gastric tone and esophageal-gastric reflex. To investigate whether the nicotinic receptor is involved in the gastric pressure response to distension, we studied the effects of hexamethonium. Intervista a più voci, Il Ponte Vecchio, Cesena, 2002.; Claudio Cerritelli (a cura di), Il gesto e il colore.Opere 1955-2005, Nicolodi, Rovereto, 2006. We have previously shown that in the isolated perfused rat stomach, the nicotinic receptor agonist, DMPP (10−6 to 10−4 M), significantly increased NO production in a dose‐dependent manner, which was abolished by hexamethonium and TTX (Takahashi & Owyang, 1995). L’ultimo libro è stato ignorato: la solitudine degli ex potenti. Tra i temi correlati si veda Frasi, citazioni e aforismi sui complimenti e Frasi, citazioni e aforismi sulla falsità, le persone false, l’ipocrisia e la finzione. Prolactin‐releasing peptide affects gastric motor function in rat by modulating synaptic transmission in the dorsal vagal complex. Il variegato fronte di opposizione o di ostilit receptors in the regulation of gastric tone in rats Ho indagato un po’ e ho scoperto che il “prodigio” si chiama Andrea Santojanni; a 17 anni … Serotonergic Mechanisms Regulating the GI Tract: Experimental Evidence and Therapeutic Relevance. This suggests that an intramural pathway does not mediate gastric relaxation in an extrinsically denervated stomach. Experiments were performed 7 days after surgery. The accommodation reflex allows the stomach to receive large volumes during food intake with minimal increases in pressure (Canon & Lieb, 1911; Grey, 1917). Inhibitory neural pathway regulating gastric emptying in rats. Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry. To see if the splanchnic nerve is involved in the adaptive changes following chronic vagotomy, we studied the effects of guanethidine and splanchnicotomy. Join Facebook to connect with Ascanio Lecchini and others you may know. Handbook of Behavior, Food and Nutrition. Frasi sui dipendenti In archivio 115 frasi, aforismi, citazioni sui dipendenti La trovi in Lavoro. Truncal vagotomy (TV) also significantly increased the slope of the volume–pressure curve compared with control, reaching 16.8 ± 1.9 cmH2O when the stomach was distended with 6 ml of saline (F at 104.5; d.f, 1,48; P < 0.0001, ANOVA) (Fig. In the present study, neither rabbit VIP antiserum nor atropine affected the pressure increase induced by gastric distension. Frasi sui colleghi lecchini These afferent receptors transmit sensory information to the central nervous system and play an important role in the vago–vagal reflex. Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate mechanosensitive responses in the stomach. In contrast to pretreatment with l‐NAME and hexamethonium, the intraluminal pressure increase evoked by gastric distension was not affected by guanethidine or by splanchnicotomy, suggesting that the sympathetic pathway is not involved in the mediation of the accommodation reflex following vagotomy. Slurp: Lecchini, cortigiani e penne alla bava al servizio dei potenti che ci hanno rovinati Marco Travaglio ecco la copertina e la descrizione del libro libri.tel è un motore di ricerca gratuito di ebook (epub, mobi, pdf) Libri.cx è un blog per lettori, appassionati di libri. L'unico e originale sito web divertente! P. Roberto Lecchini, la parrocchia di Sant'Antonio, il primo cinquantennio - Il Padre Pasquale veniva sostituito dallo scrivente, che, eletto da S. E. Rev..ma Mons. io odio i lecchini di habbo LIFO teschietto96 stak2 ecc tutti lecchini dei mod loro dicono una cs i mod ubediscono sembra che comandano loro fate le vostro commento dei lecchini di … The abdominal wall was closed by 3/0 nylon. The accommodation reflex is fully restored 4 weeks after chronic vagotomy, a result of adaptive changes in the gastric myenteric plexus that release NO via nicotinic synapses. The vagal nerve has been demonstrated to play an important role in mediating this reflex (Wilbur & Kelly, 1973; Jahnberg, Abrahamsson, Jansson & Martinson, 1977; Andrews, Grundy & Lawes, 1980; Takasugi, Ueda, Kurata, Kodama, Ezaki & Fujii, 1982). It is also suggested that the adaptive mechanism mediating the accommodation reflex following vagotomy occurs in the gastric myenteric plexus. Sei qui: Home Architetti - Ingegneri Personaggi Religiosi 19 aprile 1999 - E' tornato al cielo Padre Roberto Lecchini da Arzelato, ex parroco di S. Antonio Al fine di fornire … Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Ketamine has minimal effects on the autonomic nervous system in rats. Scopri le migliori foto stock e immagini editoriali di attualità di Lecchino su Getty Images. TTX, hexamethonium and l‐NAME were infused into the coeliac artery for 20 min before gastric inflation. 1990). Guarda il profilo completo su LinkedIn e scopri i collegamenti di Giorgio e le offerte di lavoro presso aziende simili. Means ±s.e.m., n= 4. In conclusion, our studies show that the vago—vagal reflex plays a prominent role in mediating the accommodation reflex in the rat stomach. Deve essere proprio vero che l'opportunismo politico crea quelli che gli anglos chiamano strange bedfellows, strani compagni di letto, per avere un momento di notorietà o per vendere qualche copia in più. aforismi sull'ipocrisia, citazioni sull'ipocrisia, frasi celebri sull'ipocrisia, massime sull'ipocrisia, daimon club, citazioni per argomento Gastric distension-induced release of 5-HT stimulates c- Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus: a site for evoking simultaneous changes in crural diaphragm activity, lower esophageal sphincter pressure, and fundus tone. Projections to the alimentary canal from the dopaminergic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus of the rat. GABAB Receptor Signaling in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus Stimulates Gastric Motility via a Cholinergic Pathway. Citazioni su adulatori, citazioni sui leccapiedi, citazioni sui lecchini, citazioni sui lustrascarpe. It has been demonstrated that the vago–vagal reflex plays an important role in mediating gastric relaxation during food intake (Wilbur & Kelly, 1973; Andrews et al. This may explain the observation that patients following chronic vagotomy have a normal accommodation reflex (Hertley & Mackie, 1991). Glucose does not activate nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory neurons in the rat stomach. It is suggested that the vago‐vagal reflex plays an important role in mediating the accommodation reflex. Troppe immagini selezionate. Generally, tension receptors are located in the serosa and/or muscle layers and mechanoreceptors are found in the mucosa (Grundy, 1988). This suggests that nicotinic synapses and the intramural NO pathway in the gastric myenteric plexus are involved in the mediation of gastric relaxation following chronic vagotomy. Interstitial cells of Cajal and adaptive relaxation in the mouse stomach. Siamo nel 2017, ancora a questi vecchi stereotipi vi attaccate?.. Frasi sui colleghi lecchini We have previously reported that cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) mediates pancreatic amylase secretion via the vago–vagal reflex in ketamine‐anaesthetized rats (Li & Owyang, 1993). Gastric distension induced‐pressure increase after TV was similar to that observed in rats pretreated with TTX, suggesting that the vagal pathway is the predominant neural pathway mediating the intragastric pressure in response to gastric distension of the rat stomach. Brainstem Control of the Gastric Function. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) have been proposed as probable neurotransmitters of NANC neurons. Tetrahydroberberine, an Isoquinoline Alkaloid Isolated from Corydalis Tuber, Enhances Gastrointestinal Motor Function. Chronic interfacing with the autonomic nervous system using carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn electrodes. 2 . 1976; Bult et al. TTX (10−7 M) and l‐NAME (10−4 M) did not cause any further pressure increases evoked by gastric distension in vitro, suggesting lack of involvement of a local reflex pathway in the rat stomach. Esophageal-gastric relaxation reflex in rat: dual control of peripheral nitrergic and cholinergic transmission. 1982). Systemic cholecystokinin amplifies vago‐vagal reflex responses recorded in vagal motor neurones. 1990). The perfusate was a modified Krebs–Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer containing (mM): 118 NaCl, 4.8 KCl, 2.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 1.2 KH2PO4, 1.2 MgSO4, 11 .1 glucose; 0.2% (w/v) bovine serum albumin and 4% (w/v) dextran. . Acute hyperglycemia is related to gastrointestinal symptoms in motion sickness: An experimental study. Working off-campus? Storia, politica, cinema, mass media, serie tv. In these rats, the intraluminal‐pressure increase evoked by gastric distension was not affected by TTX (data not shown), indicating the loss of naturally mediated gastric relaxation. Tanti link per facebook da condividere, oltre ai link facebook ci sono i video youtube.it, e le immagini divertenti! who reported that gastric accommodation reflex returns to normal following chronic vagotomy and this was mediated by intrinsic neural pathway (Grundy, Gharib‐Naseri & Hutson, 1993). Neurogastroenterology in Spinal Cord Dysfunction. Vagal Nerve Control of Appetite, Energy, Regulation, and Body Weight. Nausea and Vomiting Related to Autonomic Nervous System Disorders. Means ±s.e.m., n= 5. Capsaicin is a neurotoxin that impairs the function of sensory C fibres and if applied to the vagus nerve, inhibits the action of CCK on gastric motility and emptying (Raybould & Tache, 1988). Gastric stasis in neuronal nitric oxide synthase–deficient knockout mice. Means ±s.e.m., n= 5. The PEIS-V database is no longer updated from June 1, 2018 Significance was accepted at the 5% level. The following drugs were used: L‐arginine, atropine, capsaicin, guanethidine, hexamethonium, phentolamine, propranolol, and tetrodotoxin (Sigma), l‐NAME (Research Biochemicals Incorporated, Natick, MA, USA), and VIP antiserum (Peninsula, Belmont, CA, USA). Spatial organization of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus synapsing with intragastric cholinergic and nitric oxide/VIP neurons in the rat. After infusion of various antagonists and extrinsic neural ablation (vagotomy and splanchnicotomy), gastric inflation studies were repeated and the pressure increases were compared with control. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. The maximum dose of capsaicin applied was 0.1 ml (1 mg per rat). 3-mag-2017 - Citazioni su adulatori, citazioni sui leccapiedi, citazioni sui lecchini, citazioni sui lustrascarpe. 5). Intra‐arterial infusion of l‐NAME (10−4M) significantly antagonized the rapid relaxation, suggesting the mediation of NO release from the gastric myenteric plexus (Takahashi & Owyang, 1995). The area was thoroughly rinsed with olive oil followed by saline and dried with sterile swabs. Vagal fibres activate postganglionic elements in the gastric wall that use non‐adrenergic, non‐cholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitters to mediate gastric relaxation (Abrahamsson & Jansson, 1969; Wilbur & Kelly, 1973; Andrews et al. A similar method demonstrated that perivagal capsaicin treatment significantly reduced pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by physiological doses of CCK infusion (Li & Owyang, 1993). Without damaging the vagal trunks, the oesophagus was ligated 0.5 cm above the cardia to prevent a loss of pressure. Depression by Relaxin of Neurally Induced Contractile Responses in the Mouse Gastric Fundus1. Gastric relaxation induced by hyperglycemia is mediated by vagal afferent pathways in the rat. Splanchnic nerve section was performed by deflecting the stomach and spleen to the right of the rat, facilitating identification of the nerves and coeliac ganglion. The stomach was inflated with prewarmed saline (6 ml) at a rate of 1 ml min−1 and the intraluminal pressure was recorded. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Gastrointestinal, Hepatic and Pancreatic Physiology, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Elicitation of reflex vagal relaxation of the stomach from pharynx and oesophagus in the cat, Selective depletion of the acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide of the guinea‐pig myenteric plexus by differential mobilization of distinct transmitter pools, Histochemical localization of nitric oxide synthase in rat enteric nervous system, The role of the vagus and splanchnic nerves in the regulation of intragastric pressure in the ferret, Release of nitric oxide upon stimulation of nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerves in the rat gastric fundus, Involvement of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in gastric reflex relaxation, Localization of nitric oxide synthase indicating a neural role for nitric oxide, Nitric oxide as an inhibitory non‐adrenergic non‐cholinergic neurotransmitter, Both ATP and the peptide VIP are inhibitory neurotransmitters in guinea‐pig ileum circular muscle, Evidence for dual components in the non‐adrenergic non‐cholinergic relaxation in the rat gastric fundus: role of endogenous nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, Comparison of the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and non‐adrenergic non‐cholinergic neuron stimulation in the cat gastric fundus, Involvement of nitric oxide in the reflex relaxation of the stomach to accommodate food or fluid, Observation of the postural activity of the stomach, Speculations on the structure/function relationship for vagal and splanchnic afferent endings supplying the gastrointestinal tract, Effect of immunization against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on gastric corpus tone and motility in the ferret, Plasticity in the gastric inhibitory innervation after immunization against VIP and vagotomy in the ferret, Gastric adaptive relaxation and symptoms after vagotomy, Enteric inhibitory neural regulation of human colonic circular muscle: role of nitric oxide, Peripheral sympathetic pathways to gastroduodenal region of the guinea pig, Localization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) to central and peripheral neurons, Influence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and, Vagal afferent pathway mediates physiological action of cholecystokinin on pancreatic enzyme secretion, Pancreatic secretion evoked by cholecystokinin and non‐cholecystokinin‐dependent duodenal stimuli via vagal afferent fibres in the rat, Antagonists of nitric oxide synthesis inhibit nerve‐mediated relaxations of longitudinal muscle in guinea pig ileum, Effect of bilateral cervical vagotomy on balloon‐induced lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in the dog, Perivagal application of capsaicin abolishes the response of vagal gastric mechanoreceptors to cholecystokinin, Reflex decreases in intragastric pressure in response to cholecystokinin in rats, Cholecystokinin inhibits gastric motility and emptying via capsaicin‐sensitive vagal pathway in rats, Effects of the vagus nerves on gastric motility and release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the anaesthetized lamb, Vagal control of gastric motility: participation of nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the regulation of gastric relaxation, Neural and humoral factors influence gastric receptive relaxation in dogs, Gastroduodenal mucosal afferent fibers mediate physiological action of cholecystokinin on pancreatic secretion, Effect of proximal gastric, complete gastric, and truncal vagotomy on canine gastric electric activity, motility, and emptying, Corelease of PHI and VIP by vagal stimulation in the dog, Release of endogenous acetylcholine from a vascularly perfused rat stomach. The pressure increase evoked by gastric distension (6 ml) was not affected by guanethidine, splanchnicotomy, or VIP antiserum, suggesting that the sympathetic and VIP pathways are not involved following chronic vagotomy (4 weeks). For total neural blockade, rats under artificial ventilation received tetrodotoxin (TTX, 36 μg (kg body wt)−1), which was injected bolus and also continuously infused at the rate of 2 μg (kg body wt)−1 h−1 for 20 min before the stomach inflation studies, as previously described (Li & Owyang, 1993). Anziani, vignette umoristiche e divertenti, meme o post da pubblicare su facebook twitter o altri social, con frasi sagge o buffe, immagini spiritose su anziani e vecchi, tanto per ridere un po. Sta arrivando davvero di tutto sui "lecchini". Gastric distension with 6 ml of saline infusion for 6 min (1 ml min−1) evoked an increase of 9.0 ± 1.0 cmH2O of intragastric pressure. To investigate whether the local myenteric plexus is involved in the mediation of the accommodation reflex before and after vagotomy, we performed in vitro experiments using a denervated, vascularly isolated, perfused stomach, as previously described (Yokotani, Okuma, Nakamura & Osumi, 1993; Takahashi & Owyang, 1995). V. Remodeling of vagus and enteric neural circuitry after vagal injury. TTX (10−7 m) and l‐NAME (10−4 m) did not cause further pressure increases, suggesting that intramural neural pathways are not involved. Liberatoria completa / Liberatoria non obbligatoria. The effects of hexamethonium on the pressure increase evoked by gastric distension were less than those of TTX and TV. A polyethylene catheter was placed in the jugular vein for the infusion of various antagonists. Pretreatment with TTX significantly changed the slope of the volume‐pressure curve; and produced a steeper increase in pressure with progressive gastric volume distension. Changes in Gastrointestinal Physiology in Obese Patients. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. This reflex was antagonized by TTX, C6 and l‐NAME, but not by VIP antiserum, guanethidine and splanchnicotomy. Immagini Divertenti: Le migliori foto e cazzate divertenti dal web. 2B). Se vi incuriosisce sapere come sono andate le classifiche degli ultimi 11 anni, potete cliccare sui link qui di seguito: 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009 e 2008.